10kya Agriculture in Bolivia

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10kya Agriculture in Bolivia

#1  Postby Spearthrower » Apr 16, 2020 1:37 pm


Early Holocene crop cultivation and landscape modification in Amazonia

The onset of plant cultivation is one of the most important cultural transitions in human history1,2,3,4. Southwestern Amazonia has previously been proposed as an early centre of plant domestication, on the basis of molecular markers that show genetic similarities between domesticated plants and wild relatives4,5,6. However, the nature of the early human occupation of southwestern Amazonia, and the history of plant cultivation in this region, are poorly understood. Here we document the cultivation of squash (Cucurbita sp.) at about 10,250 calibrated years before present (cal. yr bp), manioc (Manihot sp.) at about 10,350 cal. yr bp and maize (Zea mays) at about 6,850 cal. yr bp, in the Llanos de Moxos (Bolivia). We show that, starting at around 10,850 cal. yr bp, inhabitants of this region began to create a landscape that ultimately comprised approximately 4,700 artificial forest islands within a treeless, seasonally flooded savannah. Our results confirm that the Llanos de Moxos is a hotspot for early plant cultivation and demonstrate that—ever since their arrival in Amazonia—humans have markedly altered the landscape, with lasting repercussions for habitat heterogeneity and species conservation.
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Re: 10kya Agriculture in Bolivia

#2  Postby theropod_V_2.0 » Apr 16, 2020 1:45 pm


Very interesting stuff Spearthrower! Thanks for posting.

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Re: 10kya Agriculture in Bolivia

#3  Postby felltoearth » Apr 16, 2020 1:50 pm

Interesting, two of the three sisters by 6850bp. I know some 10kya settlements have been discovered on the west coast of Canada. Any idea what the earliest known discovery of cultivation is there? I would assume it was discovered in North America and made its way south.
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Re: 10kya Agriculture in Bolivia

#4  Postby Macdoc » Apr 17, 2020 1:39 am

PNG also has a very long history going back about the same time. Actually thought it might go back further. Families were/are extended in isolated compounds with a wide variety of useful jungle plants surrounding the compounds. The indigenes would occasionally get together and swap useful plants sort of like a pot lock supper but with useful perennials. Given the insane ( and still mostly unexplored terrain ) it was safe haven from lowland invaders. So a get together meant a quite the effort.

http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads ... istory.pdf

Terra preta is a feature of forest cultivated soils in the Amazon.
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