Depleting Water Resource News

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Depleting Water Resource News

#1  Postby HughMcB » Sep 24, 2010 6:09 am

This thread is for Depleting Water Resource News articles only and not intended for discussions, feel free to open a thread to discuss any or all articles posted.


Groundwater depletion rate accelerating worldwide
AGU Release No. 10–30
23 September 2010
For Immediate Release


WASHINGTON—In recent decades, the rate at which humans worldwide are pumping dry the vast underground stores of water that billions depend on has more than doubled, say scientists who have conducted an unusual, global assessment of groundwater use.

These fast-shrinking subterranean reservoirs are essential to daily life and agriculture in many regions, while also sustaining streams, wetlands, and ecosystems and resisting land subsidence and salt water intrusion into fresh water supplies. Today, people are drawing so much water from below that they are adding enough of it to the oceans (mainly by evaporation, then precipitation) to account for about 25 percent of the annual sea level rise across the planet, the researchers find.

Soaring global groundwater depletion bodes a potential disaster for an increasingly globalized agricultural system, says Marc Bierkens of Utrecht University in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and leader of the new study.

“If you let the population grow by extending the irrigated areas using groundwater that is not being recharged, then you will run into a wall at a certain point in time, and you will have hunger and social unrest to go with it,” Bierkens warns. “That is something that you can see coming for miles.”

He and his colleagues will publish their new findings in an upcoming issue of Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.

In the new study, which compares estimates of groundwater added by rain and other sources to the amounts being removed for agriculture and other uses, the team taps a database of global groundwater information including maps of groundwater regions and water demand. The researchers also use models to estimate the rates at which groundwater is both added to aquifers and withdrawn. For instance, to determine groundwater recharging rates, they simulate a groundwater layer beneath two soil layers, exposed at the top to rainfall, evaporation, and other effects, and use 44 years worth of precipitation, temperature, and evaporation data (1958–2001) to drive the model.

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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#2  Postby HughMcB » Oct 02, 2010 12:11 am

BBC News wrote:Water map shows billions at risk of 'water insecurity'
By Richard Black Environment correspondent, BBC News

About 80% of the world's population lives in areas where the fresh water supply is not secure, according to a new global analysis. Researchers compiled a composite index of "water threats" that includes issues such as scarcity and pollution. The most severe threat category encompasses 3.4 billion people.

Writing in the journal Nature, they say that in western countries, conserving water for people through reservoirs and dams works for people, but not nature. They urge developing countries not to follow the same path.

Instead, they say governments should invest in water management strategies that combine infrastructure with "natural" options such as safeguarding watersheds, wetlands and flood plains.

The analysis is a global snapshot, and the research team suggests more people are likely to encounter more severe stress on their water supply in the coming decades, as the climate changes and the human population continues to grow.

They have taken data on a variety of different threats, used models of threats where data is scarce, and used expert assessment to combine the various individual threats into a composite index.

The result is a map that plots the composite threat to human water security and to biodiversity in squares 50km by 50km (30 miles by 30 miles) across the world.
Changing pictures

"What we've done is to take a very dispassionate look at the facts on the ground - what is going on with respect to humanity's water security and what the infrastructure that's been thrown at this problem does to the natural world," said study leader Charles Vorosmarty from the City College of New York.

"What we're able to outline is a planet-wide pattern of threat, despite the trillions of dollars worth of engineering palliatives that have totally reconfigured the threat landscape."

Those "trillions of dollars" are represented by the dams, canals, aqueducts, and pipelines that have been used throughout the developed world to safeguard drinking water supplies.

Their impact on the global picture is striking.

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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#3  Postby HughMcB » Oct 02, 2010 12:48 am

World's Rivers in 'Crisis State', Report Finds

ScienceDaily (Oct. 1, 2010) — The world's rivers, the single largest renewable water resource for humans and a crucible of aquatic biodiversity, are in a crisis of ominous proportions, according to a new global analysis.

The report, published Sept. 30 in the journal Nature, is the first to simultaneously account for the effects of such things as pollution, dam building, agricultural runoff, the conversion of wetlands and the introduction of exotic species on the health of the world's rivers.

The resulting portrait of the global riverine environment, according to the scientists who conducted the analysis, is grim. It reveals that nearly 80 percent of the world's human population lives in areas where river waters are highly threatened posing a major threat to human water security and resulting in aquatic environments where thousands of species of plants and animals are at risk of extinction.

"Rivers around the world really are in a crisis state," says Peter B. McIntyre, a senior author of the new study and a professor of zoology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Limnology.

The Nature report was authored by an international team co-led by Charles J. Vörösmarty of the City University of New York, an expert on global water resources, and McIntyre, an expert on freshwater biodiversity.

Examining the influence of numerous types of threats to water quality and aquatic life across all of the world's river systems, the study is the first to explicitly assess both human water security and biodiversity in parallel. Fresh water is widely regarded as the world's most essential natural resource, underpinning human life and economic development as well as the existence of countless organisms ranging from microscopic life to fish, amphibians, birds and terrestrial animals of all kinds.

Over many millennia, humans have exerted an increasingly pervasive influence on fresh water resources. Rivers, in particular, have attracted humans and have been altered through damming, irrigation and other agricultural and engineering practices since the advent of civilization. In recent times, chemical pollution, burgeoning human populations, and the accidental as well as purposeful global redistribution of plants, fish, and other animal species have had far-reaching effects on rivers and their aquatic inhabitants.

"Flowing rivers represent the largest single renewable water resource for humans," notes Vörösmarty. "What we've discovered is that when you map out these many sources of threat, you see a fully global syndrome of river degradation."

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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#4  Postby HughMcB » Oct 06, 2010 4:46 pm

80 Percent of Global Water Supplies at Risk
A new report gives the most comprehensive river assessment yet

By Mason Inman
for National Geographic News
Published September 30, 2010


River biodiversity and our water security are in serious trouble, according to a comprehensive survey of waterways released yesterday. At risk are the water supplies of nearly 80 percent of humanity, and two-thirds of the world's river habitats.

Hotspots of concern include nearly the whole of Europe, the Indian subcontinent, eastern China, southern Mexico, and the United States east of the Rockies.

But experts say there may be hope for restoring rivers and securing future water needs for cities, farms, energy production, industry—and for ecosystems—by "working with nature."

"We, as a global society, are taking very poor care of water resources," said survey co-leader Peter McIntyre, a zoologist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. (See the UW website about the report.)

Rivers, wetlands, lakes, and the life that relies on them, are at risk around the world because of a variety of stresses, including overuse of water, pollution, introduction of exotic species, and overfishing, according to the new study, published today in the journal Nature.

The study maps out all of these stresses and nearly two dozen more; it is the first such detailed map of the threats to human water security and river biodiversity. (See our rivers photogallery.)

Getting to the Source

"We see the rivers in many parts of the world moving into crisis," said study co-leader Charles Vörösmarty, a water researcher at the City College of New York in New York City.

"Wherever there are substantial densities of people, wherever there is substantial cropland, and wherever there is intense industrialization—this is precisely where we found the problems," he added.

The roots of many of these problems lie in where people have chosen to live. "We settle in really dangerous places, like in coastal deltas or on floodplains," Vörösmarty said.

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The banks of the Indus River in Sukkur, Pakistan.
Photograph by Agha Waseem Ahmed, My Shot
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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#5  Postby HughMcB » Oct 19, 2010 4:49 pm

A river ran through it
Nature and humans leaving mark on rivers and streams, affecting aquatic food webs

Public release date: 15-Oct-2010

Rivers and streams supply the lifeblood to ecosystems across the globe, providing water for drinking and irrigation for humans as well as a wide array of life forms from single-celled organisms up to the fish humans eat.

But humans and nature itself are making it tough on rivers to continue in their central role to support fish species, according to new research by a team of scientists including John Sabo, a biologist at Arizona State University.

Globally, rivers and streams are being drained due to human use and climate change. These and other human impacts alter the natural variability of river flows.

Some affected rivers have dried and no longer run, while others have seen increases in the variability of flows due to storm floods.

The result is that humans and nature are conspiring to shorten food chains, particularly by eliminating top predators like many large-bodied fish.

"Floods and droughts shorten the food chain, but they do it in different ways," said Sabo.

Sabo is the lead author of a paper reporting results of a study of 36 rivers in this week's issue of the journal Science.

"The length of food chains is a crucial determinate of the functioning of ecosystems," says Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF)'s Division of Environmental Biology, which funded the research.

"Ecologists have long sought to explain why food chain length varies among different ecosystems. This study provides a quantitative answer to that question for stream ecosystems, and provides critical evidence for the importance of flow variation."

High flows "take out the middle men in the food web, making fish [the top predator] feed lower in the food chain," said Sabo. "Droughts completely knock out the top predator."

"The result is a simpler food web, but the effects we see for low flows are more catastrophic for fish--and are long-lasting."

Sabo and co-authors--Jacques Finlay, University of Minnesota, St. Paul; Theodore Kennedy, U.S. Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Flagstaff, Ariz.; and David Post, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.--suggest that the fate of large-bodied fishes should be more carefully factored into the management of water use, especially as growing human populations and climate change affect water availability.

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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#6  Postby HughMcB » Oct 19, 2010 4:51 pm

Climate change: Drought may threaten much of globe within decades
October 19, 2010

BOULDER—The United States and many other heavily populated countries face a growing threat of severe and prolonged drought in coming decades, according to a new study by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientist Aiguo Dai. The detailed analysis concludes that warming temperatures associated with climate change will likely create increasingly dry conditions across much of the globe in the next 30 years, possibly reaching a scale in some regions by the end of the century that has rarely, if ever, been observed in modern times.

Using an ensemble of 22 computer climate models and a comprehensive index of drought conditions, as well as analyses of previously published studies, the paper finds most of the Western Hemisphere, along with large parts of Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, may be at threat of extreme drought this century.

In contrast, higher-latitude regions from Alaska to Scandinavia are likely to become more moist.

Dai cautioned that the findings are based on the best current projections of greenhouse gas emissions. What actually happens in coming decades will depend on many factors, including actual future emissions of greenhouse gases as well as natural climate cycles such as El Niño.

The new findings appear this week as part of a longer review article in Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. The study was supported by the National Science Foundation, NCAR’s sponsor.

“We are facing the possibility of widespread drought in the coming decades, but this has yet to be fully recognized by both the public and the climate change research community,” Dai says. “If the projections in this study come even close to being realized, the consequences for society worldwide will be enormous.”

While regional climate projections are less certain than those for the globe as a whole, Dai’s study indicates that most of the western two-thirds of the United States will be significantly drier by the 2030s. Large parts of the nation may face an increasing risk of extreme drought during the century.

Other countries and continents that could face significant drying include:

  • Much of Latin America, including large sections of Mexico and Brazil
  • Regions bordering the Mediterranean Sea, which could become especially dry
  • Large parts of Southwest Asia
  • Most of Africa and Australia, with particularly dry conditions in regions of Africa
  • Southeast Asia, including parts of China and neighboring countries

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Future drought. These four maps illustrate the potential for future drought worldwide over the decades indicated, based on current projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. These maps are not intended as forecasts, since the actual course of projected greenhouse gas emissions as well as natural climate variations could alter the drought patterns.
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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#7  Postby HughMcB » Nov 02, 2010 4:01 am

Drought strikes the Amazon rainforest again
Climate change may explain why history is repeating itself in Brazil.

Jeff Tollefson
Published online 29 October 2010 | Nature


Black River (Rio Negro, in Portuguese) is seen empty due to drought in Manaus, in the Brazilian northern state of Amazonas, on October 21, 2010. Fourty of the 62 municipalities belong Amazonas state declared state of emergency because of the lack of water.

Five years ago, vast areas of the Amazon were hammered by a historic drought, which destroyed trees, impacted the livelihoods of fishermen and others who are dependent on the river and presented scientists with what was seen as a rare opportunity to investigate the world's largest rainforest in extreme distress. Drought has now struck again, reinforcing fears that the invisible hand of climate change may be involved. Nature takes a closer look.

How does the current drought compare with the one in 2005?

So far it seems the drought is similar in size, although some features vary. Luiz Aragao, a remote-sensing expert at the University of Exeter, UK, who has reviewed Brazilian data from ground stations and satellites, says that the drought appears to be broader in scope but slightly less intense than 2005. The current drought has affected a large area covering the northwest, central and southwest Amazon, including parts of Columbia, Peru and northern Bolivia. Fewer clouds and less rain also translate into higher temperatures, and Aragao says that the maximum temperatures in September are 1 °C higher than 2005, and 2–3 °C higher than average. Water levels in the primary tributary Rio Negro — or Black River — are at historic lows.

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A severe drought is affecting the Amazon
for the second time in five years.
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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#8  Postby HughMcB » Nov 02, 2010 4:02 am

Time for a Rain Dance?
Monday, November 1, 2010

TAU research finds "cloud seeding" doesn't produce rain

In many areas of the world, including California's Mojave Desert, rain is a precious and rare resource. To encourage rainfall, scientists use "cloud seeding," a weather modification process designed to increase precipitation amounts by dispersing chemicals into the clouds.

But research now reveals that the common practice of cloud seeding with materials such as silver iodide and frozen carbon dioxide may not be as effective as it had been hoped. In the most comprehensive reassessment of the effects of cloud seeding over the past fifty years, new findings from Prof. Pinhas Alpert, Prof. Zev Levin and Dr. Noam Halfon of Tel Aviv University's Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences have dispelled the myth that seeding is an effective mechanism for precipitation enhancement.

The findings were recently reported in Atmospheric Research.

Throwing seeds into the wind

During the course of his study, Prof. Alpert and his colleagues looked over fifty years' worth of data on cloud seeding, with an emphasis on the effects of seeding on rainfall amounts in a target area over the Sea of Galilee in the north of Israel. The research team used a comprehensive rainfall database and compared statistics from periods of seeding and non-seeding, as well as the amounts of precipitation in adjacent non-seeded areas.

"By comparing rainfall statistics with periods of seeding, we were able to show that increments of rainfall happened by chance," says Prof. Alpert. "For the first time, we were able to explain the increases in rainfall through changing weather patterns" instead of the use of cloud seeding.

Most notable was a six year period of increased rainfall, originally thought to be a product of successful cloud seeding. Prof. Alpert and his fellow researchers showed that this increase corresponded with a specific type of cyclones which are consistent with increased rainfall over the mountainous regions. They observed that a similarly significant rain enhancement over the Judean Mountains, an area which was not the subject of seeding.

The researchers concluded that changing weather patterns were responsible for the higher amount of precipitation during these years. Their research method may be useful in the investigation of cloud seeding in the U.S. and other regions.

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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#9  Postby mindhack » Feb 28, 2012 9:08 am


The disappearance of the Aral Sea

Author: GRIDA (http://www.grida.no/graphicslib/detail/the-disappearance-of-the-aral-sea_1729)

The demise of the Aral Sea in central Asia was caused primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar’ya and Syr Dar’ya rivers to provide irrigation water for local croplands. These diversions dramatically reduced the river inflows, causing the Aral Sea to shrink by more than 50%, to lose two-thirds of its volume, and to greatly increase its salinity. At the current rate of decline, the Aral Sea has the potential to disappear completely by 2020 (Pidwirny, 1999). - In 1963, the surface of the Aral Sea measured 66,100 km2, with an average depth of 16 m and a maximum depth of 68 m. The salt content was 1%. During the 1960s, upstream irrigation schemes for growing rice and cotton consumed 90% of the natural flow of water from the Tian Shan Mountains. - By 1987, 27,000 km2 of former sea bottom of the Aral Sea had become dry land; about 60% volume had been lost, its depth had declined by 14 m, and its salt concentration had doubled. - Today, about 200,000 tonnes of salt and sand are carried by the wind from the Aral Sea region every day, and dumped within a 300 km radius. The salt pollution is decreasing the available agriculture area, destroying pastures, and creating a shortage of forage for domestic animals. The number of domestic animals in the region has become so low that the government has issued a decree to reduce the slaughter of animals for food. - Fishing in the Aral Sea has ceased completely, while shipping and other water-related activities have declined; the associated economic changes have taken a heavy toll on agricultural production. Rising unemployment has led to a major exodus from the region. In Aralsk Rayon, for example, the population has dropped from 82,900 to 72,500 people in the past 10 years (Okda, 2001). - The quality of drinking water has continued to decline due to increasing salinity, bacteriological contamination, and the presence of pesticides and heavy metals. - Diseases like anaemia, cancer and tuberculosis, and the presence of allergies, are on the rise. The incidence of typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and throat cancer is three times the national average in some areas (DLR, 2002; LEAD, 1997; Okda, 2001). Recent measures have been taken to change this disastrous state, through the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (UNEP, GRID Arendal, IFAS, 1997). If all measures are adhered to, a substantial recovery might be achieved within 20 years, although it is doubtful that the Aral Sea will ever be restored to the conditions that existed before the large-scale diversion of its inflowing rivers.

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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#10  Postby FACT-MAN-2 » Dec 04, 2013 6:36 pm


Today’s worst watershed stresses may become the new normal, study finds

September 18, 2013 •
Institutes, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES)
http://www.colorado.edu/news/releases/2 ... tudy-finds

Nearly one in 10 U.S. watersheds is “stressed,” with demand for water exceeding natural supply, according to a new analysis of surface water in the United States. What’s more, the lowest water flow seasons of recent years—times of great stress on rivers, streams, and sectors that use their waters—are likely to become typical as climates continue to warm.

“By midcentury, we expect to see less reliable surface water supplies in several regions of the United States,” said the study’s lead author, Kristen Averyt, associate director for science at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado Boulder. “This is likely to create growing challenges for agriculture, electrical suppliers and municipalities, as there may be more demand for water and less to go around.”

Averyt and her colleagues evaluated supplies and demands on freshwater resources for each of the 2,103 watersheds in the continental United States, using a large suite of existing data sets.

They identified times of extreme water stress between 1999 and 2007, and they estimated future surface water stress—using existing climate projections—for every watershed. In the paper, published online in Environmental Research Letters on Sept. 17, the authors also diagnosed the reasons contributing to stress.

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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#11  Postby FACT-MAN-2 » Dec 14, 2013 4:25 am

Well, at least some people are paying attention ...


These Are The Most Water-Stressed Countries In The World
By Matt Ferner
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/12/1 ... 34115.html

Stable and abundant water supplies are becoming increasingly difficult to come by on a warming planet with a growing population. And according to new data, 37 countries in the world already face "extremely high" levels of water stress.

The Washington, DC environmental research organization World Resources Institute released the data from their Aqueduct project Thursday. Extremely high water stress means that more than 80 percent of the water available to the agricultural, domestic and industrial users in a country is being withdrawn annually and that the risk of water scarcity in a region is remarkably high.

"Water stress can have serious consequences for countries around the world," said Paul Reig, associate for WRI's Aqueduct project, to The Huffington Post. "Droughts, floods and competition for limited supplies can threaten national economies and energy production, and even jeopardize people’s lives. If countries and international-level decision makers understand more clearly where water stress is most severe, they can direct attention and money toward the most at-risk regions."

Researchers with the Aqueduct project looked at water risks in 100 river basins and 181 nations around the globe -- the first such country-level water assessment of its kind. By taking a close look at regional baseline water stress, flood and drought occurrence over several years time, inter-annual variability and seasonal variability as well as the amount of water available to a particular region every year from rivers, streams and shallow aquifers, WRI was able to give each country a score 0 to 5, with a 5 being the greatest level of water risk.

Baseline water stress is defined as the ratio of annual water withdrawals to total available annual renewable supply, a higher percentage, as illustrated in WRI's map, means more water users competing for increasingly limited water supplies:
WRI also produced a detailed interactive map using their recent data that can be found here (see URL at the end).

WRI notes that it's important for a country to understand its risk of water scarcity and that extremely high levels of water stress doesn't mean that country will fall victim to water scarcity -- proper water management and conservation plans can help to secure a nation's water supplies.

"Publicly available rankings like these can help focus on regions facing the highest stress," Reig said. "International-level decision makers in agriculture, industry, and municipalities can use this information to identify regions with the highest need, then work together to improve water management and water security."

Continues ...

For a look at every country's water stress ranking, visit WRI's interactive map at http://www.wri.org/applications/maps/aq ... 139&init=y
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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#12  Postby felltoearth » May 25, 2015 2:17 am

Just discovered this thread. Gotta stop using Tapatalk.
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Re: Depleting Water Resource News

#13  Postby DougC » May 26, 2015 12:00 am

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-32843398
B.B.C. Article
Californian drought: Challenges for farmers and city dwellers
California is now well into a fourth year of severe drought.
This year's record low mountain snowpack, which the state relies on to get through its dry summers, means that already reduced reservoir levels will not see many gains from the melting of late spring and early summer.
The state is in a process of learning to live with drought.

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