Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

Initial claim of a few stau sleptons.

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Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#1  Postby newolder » Sep 27, 2018 8:15 pm

The ANITA Anomalous Events as Signatures of a Beyond Standard Model Particle, and Supporting Observations from IceCube

arxiv source abstract.
arxiv source full text pdf.
The ANITA collaboration have reported observation of two anomalous events that appear to be εcr ≈ 0.6EeV cosmic ray showers emerging from the Earth with exit angles of 27◦ and 35◦, respectively. While EeV-scale upgoing showers have been anticipated as a result of astrophysical tau neutrinos converting to tau leptons during Earth passage, the observed exit angles are much steeper than expected in Standard Model (SM) scenarios. Indeed, under conservative extrapolations of the SM interactions, there is no particle that can propagate through the Earth with probability p > 10−6 at these energies and exit angles. We explore here whether “beyond the Standard Model” (BSM) particles are required to explain the ANITA events, if correctly interpreted, and conclude that they are. Seeking confirmation or refutation of the physical phenomenon of sub-EeV Earth-emergent cosmic rays in data from other facilities, we find support for the reality of the ANITA events, and three candidate analog events, among the Extremely High Energy Northern Track neutrinos of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Properties of the implied BSM particle are anticipated, at least in part, by those predicted for the “stau” slepton (τ ̃R) in some supersymmetric models of the fundamental interactions, wherein the stau manifests as the next-to-lowest mass supersymmetric partner particle.
...

We have demonstrated (Sec. II) that SM models can- not explain the ANITA anomalous events (AAEs) if they are correctly interpreted as εcr ≈ 0.6 EeV upgoing UHECR showers with exit angles of 27◦ to 35◦, or as we have termed them, Sub-EeV Earth-emergent Cosmic Rays (SEECRs).

Having excluded SM explanations at >5σ confidence, we have argued that the SEECR phenomenon, if con- firmed, can support a discovery-level claim of “beyond the Standard Model” (BSM) physics.
...

EeV = exa electron volts. exa = 1018, εcr is the energy of the cosmic ray shower.
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#2  Postby zulumoose » Sep 28, 2018 2:22 pm

So as a non-expert skipping through this, am I right in summarizing it as saying cosmic rays/particles have been observed that are not in keeping with known or explained phenomena, and thus it indicates that there is a new avenue for research into an unknown?

Does it mean more than this, less, or have I misinterpreted it completely?
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#3  Postby newolder » Sep 28, 2018 3:10 pm

That is pretty much as it is written.

[skeptic] Of course, these are early observations/interpretations in a purported hitherto theoretical-only realm (supersymmetry) and others may well have different things to say. Two events is too few to draw significance from, for example.[/skeptic]

The claimed support for this ANITA data from the ICE-CUBE experiment is encouraging but it's early days, let's see what happens next... :coffee:
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#4  Postby Macdoc » Sep 28, 2018 4:23 pm

One of those maybe serendipity moments that could have size large implications for the Standard Model...but way more work to do.

Layman's version

Bizarre Particles Keep Flying Out of Antarctica's Ice, and They Might Shatter Modern Physics
By Rafi Letzter, Staff Writer | September 26, 2018 08:16pm ET


https://www.livescience.com/63692-stand ... ysics.html

Reminds me of the discovery of sprites tho the IceCube discovery if followed out may be way more significant.

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https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/stat ... understorm
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#5  Postby hackenslash » Sep 28, 2018 4:28 pm

Interesting, though I recall the last time an announcement like this came out of Antarctica, the mythical B-mode polarisation from BICEP2...
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#6  Postby newolder » Sep 28, 2018 4:40 pm

The scientists who cried, "Swolf!", eh?

Perhaps there's something in the water, down there, that causes all these brain burps. :shifty: :dunno:
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#7  Postby pdxkzeerkti » Sep 29, 2018 5:20 am

This discovery was somewhat eerily anticipated by a series of theoretical papers, their references [52-59]. In https://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0312197.pdf (their reference 52), it states: Therefore, NLSPs produced hundreds, even thousands of kilometers away are within range of the detector. This is to be contrasted with the fact that muons must be produced at distances not larger than tens of kilometers from the detector in order to be observed. (The acronym NLSP refers to the hypothesized BSM particle, superpartner of the tau lepton.) This was posted to the arxiv in 2003 (!).

Not to oversell myself: I got the link to [52] from one of the pop science articles, not from some expansive knowledge of this subject matter. ;-) But it really made me sit up and take note.
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#8  Postby newolder » Oct 12, 2018 11:10 am

Further Q & A @ Nautilus.
How five anomalous events at two neutrino experiments provide evidence for supersymmetry.

BY MICHAEL SEGAL
OCTOBER 11, 2018

...
Then, two weeks ago, a team of physicists from Penn State University pointed out that the two ANITA detections, plus three unusual neutrino detections at a completely different experiment—called IceCube, also in Antarctica—could all be explained by a chain of particle collisions and decays that involved the stau.

The stau is a hypothesized, never-detected particle that is proposed by supersymmetry. According to supersymmetry, every fermion particle—like electrons, or tau particles—has a partner with a different spin (spin is a quantum mechanical property of subatomic particles). These superpartners, for convenience, carry the names of their regular (non-super) twins, but preceded with an “s.” The superpartner of the electron is the selectron. The superpartner of the tau is the stau.

If supersymmetry were proven, it would have the potential to solve many outstanding problems in physics, potentially including dark matter. The team from Penn calculated the probability that the Standard Model could explain the data—it is tiny—and argued that the three IceCube events, which are currently interpreted as standard muon particle tracks, are really the result of tau and its superpartner.

I caught up with Derek Fox, the first author of a preprint published by the team, last week.
... more @ link above.
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#9  Postby Evolving » Oct 12, 2018 12:24 pm

newolder wrote:The scientists who cried, "Swolf!", eh?


:smile:
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#10  Postby newolder » Oct 18, 2018 3:11 pm

New and improved measurements on the electron's (vanishingly small) electric dipole moment cast further doubts on supersymmetry.
Smaller limit on electron’s electric dipole moment puts supersymmetry in doubt

18 Oct 2018 Hamish Johnston

The most precise measurement yet of the electron’s electric dipole moment (EDM) casts doubt on “split supersymmetry” and some other theories of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The measurement, which was made by physicists working on the ACME experiment in the US, suggests that the EDM is less than 1.1×10−29 e cm, compared to the previous best measurement of just under 10−28 e cm. The result has implications for physicists working at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) because it suggests that sought-after new particles may be beyond the energy limit of the collider.

It is well known that the electron has a magnetic dipole moment, which is a result of the particle’s “spin”, or intrinsic angular momentum. However, time reversal symmetry – the requirement that physics is the same for time running forwards and backwards – forbids the electron from also having an EDM. The magnetic dipole moment is defined by the rotation of charge and therefore its direction reverses if time runs backwards. But because the EDM is defined by the distribution of charge within the electron, which does not change under time reversal, the electron cannot have both an EDM and a magnetic dipole moment.

...

This effectively rules out split supersymmetry (split SUSY), which introduces new particles beyond the Standard Model such as the gluino and wino in an attempt to resolve current mysteries in particle physics. The measurement also appears to give a thumbs-down to the “spin-10 grand unified theory” (SO(10) GUT), which also goes beyond the Standard Model.

...

More @ physicsworld link
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#11  Postby newolder » Jan 06, 2019 12:54 pm

More ideas on these objects include the prediction of a sterile neutrino with the correct-ish mass around 480 PeV from the work of Neil Turok & pals in the CPT symmetric universe (the model which has an anti universe propagating backwards through time from the big bang) and the antarctic team's analysis published as Upgoing ANITA events as evidence of the CPT symmetric universe

Full story @ Physics World link
Our universe has antimatter partner on the other side of the Big Bang, say physicists
03 Jan 2019

Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. So claim physicists in Canada, who have devised a new cosmological model positing the existence of an “antiuniverse” which, paired to our own, preserves a fundamental rule of physics called CPT symmetry. The researchers still need to work out many details of their theory, but they say it naturally explains the existence of dark matter.

Standard cosmological models tell us that the universe – space, time and mass/energy – exploded into existence some 14 billion years ago and has since expanded and cooled, leading to the progressive formation of subatomic particles, atoms, stars and planets.

... more @ link
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#12  Postby felltoearth » Jan 06, 2019 2:31 pm

There goes nothing.
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Re: Supersymmetry in Antarctica?

#13  Postby newolder » Jun 06, 2019 4:49 pm

Latest arXiv posting on the subject (Long 35-page read):
Signatures of Supersymmetry in Neutrino Telescopes

P. S. Bhupal Dev
(Submitted on 5 Jun 2019)

We review the prospects of probing R-parity violating Supersymmetry (RPV SUSY) at neutrino telescopes using some of the highest energy particles given to us by Nature. The presence of RPV interactions involving ultra-high energy neutrinos with Earth-matter can lead to resonant production of TeV-scale SUSY partners of the SM quarks and leptons (squarks and sleptons), thereby giving rise to potentially anomalous behavior in the event spectrum observed by large-volume neutrino detectors, such as IceCube, as well as balloon-borne cosmic ray experiments, such as ANITA. Using the ultra-high energy neutrino events observed recently at IceCube, with the fact that for a given power-law flux of astrophysical neutrinos, there is no statistically significant deviation in the current data from the Standard Model expectations, we derive robust upper limits on the RPV couplings as a function of the resonantly-produced squark mass, independent of the other unknown model parameters, as long as the squarks decay dominantly to two-body final states involving leptons and quarks through the RPV couplings. Also, we discuss RPV SUSY interpretations of the recent anomalous, upward-going EeV air showers observed at ANITA, in terms of long-lived charged or neutral next-to-lightest SUSY particles.

arXiv link
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