Posted: Mar 24, 2017 4:28 pm
by newolder
jamest wrote:
newolder wrote:This APOD gives various measures that are pertinent to your query.

The associated paper that defines the terms is in the arxiv here.
The paper-and-pencil calculator is a cosmological nomogram which allows to find relations between redshift, distance, age of the Universe, physical and angular sizes, luminosity and apparent magnitude for the standard cosmological model with parameters from the Planck mission.

Thanks, though that only relates to my second question and I can't see how it answers that.

I'm easily confused. Could you ask the question again, please?

If it's the one about measuring distances to galaxies then that concerns finding 'standard candles' that shine equally in all galaxies. Saul Perlmutter used Type 1-a supernovae as standard candles and his Nobel Prize lecture is available to watch here:
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes ... cture.html