Posted: Aug 29, 2010 12:14 pm
by Rumraket
GenesForLife wrote:Now, ADParker , CITATION PLEASE :D

Could it be this one?
Full pdf.

Reptilian heart development and the molecular basis of cardiac chamber evolution

The emergence of terrestrial life witnessed the need for more sophisticated circulatory systems. This has evolved in birds, mammals, and crocodilians into complete septation of the heart into left and right sides, allowing separate pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems, a key requirement for the evolution of endothermy1–3. However, the evolution of the amniote heart is poorly understood. Reptilian hearts have been the subject of debate in the context of the evolution of cardiac septation: do they possess a single ventricular chamber or two incompletely septated ventricles4–7? We examined heart development in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans (a chelonian), and the green anole, Anolis carolinensis (a squamate), focusing on gene expression in the developing ventricles. Both reptiles initially form a ventricular chamber that homogenously expresses the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx5. In contrast, in birds and mammals, Tbx5 is restricted to left ventricle precursors8,9. In later stages, Tbx5 expression in the turtle (but not anole) heart is gradually restricted to a distinct left ventricle, forming a left-right gradient. This suggests that Tbx5 expression was refined during evolution to pattern the ventricles. In support of this hypothesis, we show that loss of Tbx5 in the mouse ventricle results in a single chamber lacking distinct identity, indicating a requirement for Tbx5 in septation. Importantly, misexpression of Tbx5 throughout the developing myocardium to mimic the reptilian expression pattern also results in a single mispatterned ventricular chamber lacking septation. Thus, ventricular septation is established by a steep and correctly positioned Tbx5 gradient. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for the evolution of the amniote ventricle, and support the concept that altered expression of developmental regulators is a key mechanism of vertebrate evolution.

And then there's all this:

Cardiac Chamber Formation: Development, Genes, and Evolution


Moorman, Antoon F. M., and Vincent M. Christoffels. Cardiac Chamber Formation: Development, Genes, and Evolution. Physiol Rev 83: 1223-1267, 2003; 10.1152/physrev.00006.2003.—Concepts of cardiac development have greatly influenced the description of the formation of the four-chambered vertebrate heart. Traditionally, the embryonic tubular heart is considered to be a composite of serially arranged segments representing adult cardiac compartments. Conversion of such a serial arrangement into the parallel arrangement of the mammalian heart is difficult to understand. Logical integration of the development of the cardiac conduction system into the serial concept has remained puzzling as well. Therefore, the current description needed reconsideration, and we decided to evaluate the essentialities of cardiac design, its evolutionary and embryonic development, and the molecular pathways recruited to make the four-chambered mammalian heart. The three principal notions taken into consideration are as follows. 1) Both the ancestor chordate heart and the embryonic tubular heart of higher vertebrates consist of poorly developed and poorly coupled "pacemaker-like" cardiac muscle cells with the highest pacemaker activity at the venous pole, causing unidirectional peristaltic contraction waves. 2) From this heart tube, ventricular chambers differentiate ventrally and atrial chambers dorsally. The developing chambers display high proliferative activity and consist of structurally well-developed and well-coupled muscle cells with low pacemaker activity, which permits fast conduction of the impulse and efficacious contraction. The forming chambers remain flanked by slowly proliferating pacemaker-like myocardium that is temporally prevented from differentiating into chamber myocardium. 3) The trabecular myocardium proliferates slowly, consists of structurally poorly developed, but well-coupled, cells and contributes to the ventricular conduction system. The atrial and ventricular chambers of the formed heart are activated and interconnected by derivatives of embryonic myocardium. The topographical arrangement of the distinct cardiac muscle cells in the forming heart explains the embryonic electrocardiogram (ECG), does not require the invention of nodes, and allows a logical transition from a peristaltic tubular heart to a synchronously contracting four-chambered heart. This view on the development of cardiac design unfolds fascinating possibilities for future research.
Theory without fact is fantasy, but fact without theory is chaos.
C. O. Whitman (334)