Posted: Jan 01, 2011 1:27 am
by susu.exp
Well, the basic splits in the Neoptera occured in the late devonain, about 350 million years ago. At this time the Neoptera split into two groups - the polyneoptera which includes Phasmids and a lineage that would later split into the paraneoptera and the holometabola. The paraneoptera includes true bugs. The fossil record for Phasmids goes back to the early triassic (240Ma ago), that for true bugs to the earliest permian (295Ma ago) - Ages and Phylogeny from Grimaldi&Engel (2005).
Using Bininda-Emonds (2007) for the mammals I get a divergence between the groups including bats and whales at about 90Ma ago.

And yea, the Neoptera are pretty big - the only winged insects less close related to bugs than Phasmids are Dragonflies (Odonata) and Mayflied (Ephimeoptera). There are a lot of groups that are closer to Phasmids than to the Hemiptera though - the Polyneoptera also includes roaches, crickets, termites, mantisses, stone flies and earwigs (to name well knwon groups). Of the ones you named, lice are the closest to true bugs, the remaining ones are holometabolans.